Paris Peace Conference begins.
Reparations provisionally set at £5.4 billion
Germans scuttle their fleet, at Scapa Flow, rather than hand it over to
Treaty of Versailles signed (reparations set at £1 billion).
Gabriele d’Annunzio and an Italian army seize Fiume, against the
US Senate refuses to join the League of Nations.
First meeting of the League of Nations.
The German government refuses to hand over 890 alleged ‘war
US Senate refuses to sign the
Treaty of Versailles.
Kapp Putsch (rebellion) in Germany, against the peace treaty, fails.
French troops invade Ruhr in Germany (until 17 May 1920) after the
German government had sent troops into the Rhineland to stop rioting.
Poland invades Russia and
Lithuania and takes land east of the ‘Curzon line’ agreed in the Treaty of
The League of Nations suggests reparations of £4.5 billion.
The League of Nations suggests reparations of £12.5 billion.
The Allies bully Poland into accepting Czech occupation of Teschen.
The League of Nations suggests reparations of £10 billion.
French, British and Belgian troops invade the Ruhr in Germany (until
30 Sep 1921) to force Germany to pay reparations.
Reparations finally fixed at £6.6 billion, to be paid in
instalments until 1988.
Germany agrees to pay reparations.
The ‘Big Three’ agree to hold a disarmament conference.
Upper Silesia, which had voted in a plebiscite to be German, is
partitioned and given to Poland after an investigation by the League of Nations.
An economic crisis in Germany (until 1924). Britain and France agree to a
6 months delay in reparations payments.
French and Belgian troops, against
US and Britain’s advice, invade the Ruhr in Germany (until Nov 1924) to
force Germany to pay reparations.
The German miners go on strike against the French invasion, which deepens
the economic crisis in Germany.
Bavaria and Rhineland declare independence from Germany (Germany is
Hitler’s Munich Putsch fails.
The Dawes Plan gives Germany longer to pay reparations, and grants
huge loans to get the German economy going.
Trade Treaty between Britain and Germany.
Locarno Pact: peace agreement between Fr., Br., Belgium, Italy &
British troops leave the Rhineland.
France and Germany sign a trade agreement.
Germany admitted to the League of Nations.
German President Hindenburg denies German War Guilt; nothing is done.
Kellogg-Briand Pact: 65 nations (inc. Fr/Br/USA/Ger) promise to
The Young Plan reduces reparations.
Wall Street Crash; USA recalls all loans, causing an economic crisis in
Last Allied troops leave the Rhineland.
German economic crisis – all banks have to close (until 5 Aug 1931).
USA, France and Britain give Germany a huge loan.
Lausanne Agreement: USA, France and Britain agree to suspend all
reparations payments indefinitely.